Right heart perforation by pacemaker leads - Pacemaker surgery risk lead penetrate
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Cardiac pacing is a proven therapy of cardiac conduction disturbances As commonly known, a higher risk of lead perforation is observed in patients arrest, and requires lifesaving intervention, usually open-chest surgery. A pacemaker (PM) (or artificial PM, so as not to be confused with the heart's natural . Although implantation of PM is a minimal invasive procedure, there is the A traumatic pneumothorax results from penetrating or nonpenetrating chest injuries. The screw-in atrial leads increase the risk of perforation through the wall of.